Saturday, September 7, 2013

Berlin (GERMANY)

Berlin :is the capital and largest city in Germany and the second largest city in the European Union . Located in the northeast of the country, it forms a Land (federal state) full and approximately 3.4 million population . Its metropolitan area covers 2,284 km2 and a population of just over 4 million people, extended 5,025,272 urban residents (the second in the country after the Ruhr area)  and its metropolitan area Greater Berlin-Brandenburg exceeds, in turn, the boundaries of land and has a total of nearly 6 million people, making it one of the ten most populous cities of the European Union .

Founded in the thirteenth century, Berlin was successively the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia (1701-1871), the German Empire (1871-1918), the Weimar Republic (1919-1933) and the Third Reich (1933-1945) . After 1945 and until the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, the city is divided into four zones of occupation. During the Cold War, the Soviet sector of the city, named East Berlin became the capital of the German Democratic Republic, while West Berlin was politically attached to the Federal Republic of Germany, becoming a bastion of "free world "inside the Communist bloc. After the fall of the Wall, Berlin once again became, in 1990, the then capital of the reunified Germany, and key federal institutions moved in there in 1999.
Berlin is a cultural and artistic world leading city. The city has 165 museums, 146 libraries and 60 théâtres. In 2008, Berlin received nearly 8 million visiteurs.


Russia: officially the Russian Federation , is the largest state of the planet. Its population was estimated 143.3 million in 2013 . The country straddles the Northeast Asia (74.7 %) and Europe (25.3 % of the area ) . Its territory extends from west to east ( from Kaliningrad to Vladivostok ) over 9000 km an area of seventeen million square kilometers (twice that of the United States, thirty-one times the France , 413 times that of Switzerland , 560 times the size of Belgium) and nine time horaires . Its capital is Moscow, the official language and the Russian ruble currency . Although surrounded by many oceans and seas , Russia is characterized by a continental climate with cold and hostile environments on most of the territory .
Russia has mineral resources ( coal , iron, nickel , diamond, etc. . ) And energy ( oil, natural gas , hydro) abundant that make it one of the largest producers and exporters . She inherited the USSR , a powerful heavy industry ( steel mills , refineries, chemical industry, etc. . ) . Sectors related to armaments, nuclear and aerospace are also highly developed , which enabled the country to play a pioneering role in the conquest of space.

The Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR ) was the largest of the fifteen republics of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , which it was the historic core .
At the end of 1991, the USSR broke into fifteen independent sovereign states , including Russia, which inherited the former superpower three quarters of its territory , more than half of its population , two-thirds of its industry and half of its agricultural production. Russia also occupies its place in continuity in international institutions, including the permanent seat in the Security Council of the UN, while also taking on the financial liability of the USSR. She is also founder of the Community of Independent States (CIS ), which brings together eleven of the fifteen former Soviet republics .
It remains a federation of 83 subjects have varying political and economic autonomy . Cutting, taking into account inter alia the presence of minorities existed in the former USSR.
After the end of the Soviet system in the late 1980s and early 1990s , the country has gradually adopted a market economy and a pluralistic parliamentary system. Aspiring to follow globalization , Russia also considers the bridge between Europe and Asia. Today, Russia is part of the BRICS alongside China, India, South Africa and Brazil . She is currently the ninth world power in 2011 in terms of nominal GDP and the sixth in terms of purchasing power.
Becoming the first European market capitalization, gas giant Gazprom became the symbol of the Russian expansion , as well as the global leader in aluminum Rusal .


 Istanbul : is the largest city and metropolitan area of Turkey and the prefecture of the province of the same name. It is inscribed on the World Heritage List by UNESCO in 1985. Istanbul is the main financial , commercial and industrial center of Turkey, is the cultural capital of the country. Istanbul has 13,522,528 inhabitants (2012) . It is also one of the largest megacities in the world.
Located on both sides of the Bosphorus , thus straddles two continents: Europe and Asia, it is generally considered European because the historical city is located on the western shore of the Strait.
It is the largest city in the country with over thirteen million inhabitants (although estimates put the figure of six million ), which is also one of the largest cities of continent , and is also the main economic hub Turkey.
Officially called Istanbul since March 28, 1930 , she wore other names during its history ( still sometimes used in different contexts ) include: " Byzantium" at the time of its founding and " Constantinople " (from May 11, 330 in honor of the Roman Emperor Constantine I ) .

Also known as the "New Rome " (incidentally, like Rome , Istanbul is founded on seven hills ), Istanbul first belonged to Thrace and the Roman Empire which it was the second capital after 395 (now the east Roman Empire in the sixteenth century and called " Byzantine " by Hieronymus Wolf ) , then the Ottoman Empire since May 29, 1453, and finally , just after the fall of it August 10, 1920 , the Republic of Turkey , which it was the capital until 13 October 1923 when this role was vested in Ankara.
The former names of the city, Byzantium and Constantinople , reflect this long history. Only a few other large cities had three names in their history. From a historical perspective , we can consider with Athens and Rome, Constantinople (Istanbul) is one of the three most important ancient capitals today .
The inhabitants of ancient Byzantium were called Byzantiotes and those of Constantinople , the Constantinopolitan or Politains . By cons , no citizen of the Eastern Roman Empire was never called Byzantine : they defined themselves as "Romans" and when they became subjects of the Ottoman Empire , it was held in the Milliyet Rum . Istanbul residents are Stambouliotes or Istanbuliotes .


London: located in the southeast of Britain, is the capital and largest city of the United Kingdom, long the capital of the British Empire. Founded almost 2,000 years ago by the Romans (Londinium), London in the nineteenth century was the most populous city in the world. Now widely exceeded in this area many megacities, it remains a city of first plan1 because of its reach and its considerable economic power, mainly due to its status as the leading financial center worldwide2.
Greater London, consisting of Inner and Outer London London, has 8,308,400 inhabitants in 20123. It performs 19% of gross domestic product UK4. The urban area of London has nearly 10 million people, while the metropolitan area, its area of ​​direct influence, has over 13 million inhabitants. In Europe, only the cities of Moscow and Paris5, 6 have similar demographic weight. The people of London are called Londoners (English: Londoners).

London is vibrant and diverse and culturally. It plays an important role in art and fashion. It is also a major tourist destination. It receives 27 million tourists annum7 and has four World Heritage listed sites and numerous iconic landmarks: the Houses of Parliament, Tower Bridge, the Tower of London, Westminster Abbey, Buckingham Palace, but also institutions such as the British Museum or the National Gallery.

Paris (French)

Paris:  the most populated town and capital of France , capital of the Île -de- France and common single - department in the country , is located in center of the Paris Basin , on a bend of the Seine , between its confluence with the Marne upstream and downstream Oise . Its inhabitants are called Parisians. The city is divided into twenty districts .
According to the census of Inseeb  , the Paris Commune were January 1, 2010 more than 2.2 million inhabitants. The Paris metropolitan area has grown significantly during the twentieth century , bringing 10.5 million at January 1, 2010  , and its urban area ( the city and the urban periphery ) were approximately 12.2 million inhabitants on 1 January 2010 . It is one of the most populated cities in Europe .

The position of Paris , at a crossroads between land and river trade routes and in the heart of a rich agricultural region, is one of the main cities of France during the tenth century , with royal palaces , wealthy abbeys and a cathedral , during the twelfth century , Paris became one of the first centers in Europe for education and the arts. The royal power setting in this city , its economic and political importance is growing . Thus, in the early fourteenth century, Paris was the largest city of the Christian world . In the seventeenth century, it is the capital of the first European political power in the eighteenth century, the cultural center of Europe and nineteenth centuries the capital of the arts and pleasures . Paris plays a major political and economic role in the history of Europe during the second millennium . Symbol of French culture , with its many monuments, the city attracts the 2000s nearly three million visitors per year1 . Paris also occupies a prominent place in the world of fashion and luxury , it is also the most visited capital in the world.

The city , with its suburbs, the economic and commercial capital of France , and its first financial marketplace . The Paris region, with a gross domestic product (GDP) of 607 billion euros (845 billion dollars) in 2011 is a major European economic actor. It is the 1st European region in terms of GDP and régional2 sixth in GDP per capita PPA . The density of its railway network , highway and airport structure , the hub of French and European aviation network , make it a focal point for international transport. This is the result of a long evolution , especially designs centralizing monarchies and republics , which give a significant role in the capital in the country and tend to concentrate institutions . Since the 1960 , government policies , however, vary between devolution and decentralization.

Cote d'Azur (French)

Côte d'Azur:  
 or The French Riviera is a mythical place: visitors flock against all odds Breton, some grilling on the beaches and dazzling lights of the night on the coast, others to discover the hinterland looking for greater authenticity.

Why not combine the two? For those who do not support the Côte d'Azur (too hot, too crowded, exorbitant prices), some advice: go out periods of summer vacation when possible, discover Saint-Tropez in the morning at 8am, do you provide air to the interior bowls, browse the coastal path looking for a cushy creek rather than stop at the beach.

Yes, the "Coast" as the hills of the interior full of miraculously preserved, adorable villages, hospitable and generous p'tits restaurants, hotels and cottages that does not cause bleeding door areas currency ...
And then get up your eyes a little and do not forget this insolent blue Riviera sky, and the light that fascinated Renoir, Bonnard, Cézanne and others, and always remain, as clear and poetic ...
Earth geographical contrasts, the Riviera offers an incredible amount of different landscapes and the possibility of great routes. Some corners belong to the curious, to those who know think outside the box. Unknown forests rich aromatic scents and picturesque hilltop villages waiting for you!

Ibiza (spain)

Ibiza: the smallest of the three Balearic Islands, attracts thousands of people from all over Europe each year.

Located close to his big sister Mallorca, Ibiza itself is a leading tourist destination internationally. Known as the capital of electronic music.

Ibiza is one of the best deals of the nightlife in Europe with many nightclubs, bars and nightclubs that have acquired an international reputation mainly because of the many sessions of intense music and dance parties held during the months of summer.

Ibiza sometimes known as Paradise is surrounded by the beauty of the ocean blue of the Mediterranean and decorated with perfect white sand beaches . It is famous for its nightlife but also has a quiet side , despite its idyllic setting , it offers a range of adventure activities and beautiful parks to relax in. guessed yet? Bingo! This is Ibiza ! Each year, there are many tourists (especially the British) who take holidays in Ibiza and it is not surprising that Ibiza beautiful beaches are lined with modern hotels offering you a breathtaking view of the blue sea clear. San Antonio is one of the famous places in Ibiza because of the picturesque marina, it is definitely worth a visit if you go to Ibiza . Is not it just make you want to fly there right away ? I certainly did !

However, the island of Ibiza is world famous not only because of its non-stop party atmosphere , but also for its natural and cultural features . Much of the island is listed under the Sites United Nations World Heritage Site. Treasures underlying this land are endless. From the coast, the traditional landscape of many villages and isolated houses and villas remained intact , preserving the unique character of the island. Ibiza is the perfect destination for those looking to enjoy water sports such as surfing , snorkeling and scuba diving, especially after spending time on the beach on sunny days . The island has several sports facilities along its remarkable coastline and many tourists and locals use this opportunity to cool off when the sun is really on fire. Get to know more about the beautiful Ibiza through our guide of Ibiza tourist information with the largest hotel in Ibiza and offers tours to enjoy the most amazing holiday in Ibiza through its unique culture, beautiful beaches, wild nightlife and friendly people - this unforgettable island boasts with options for both active and relaxing , leaving everyone breathless . No matter what you like , Ibiza will certainly delight you.

Madrid ( spain )

Madrid: is the capital of Spain.
It was founded in the ninth century by the Emir Muhammad I as the Majrît (مجريط).
Now the largest and most populated city of the country, it is also the capital of the Autonomous Community of Madrid1. It houses the headquarters of the World Tourism Organization.
The city has a population of 3,413,271 inhabitants (the Madrid), within an urban area of 7.1 million inhabitants in 2011 according to the INE.
The Prado Museum, the Reina Sofía and the Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum are among the most visited museums in the world.

barcelona ( spain )

Barcelona:is the administrative and economic capital of Catalonia, Barcelona province , in the county of El Barcelonès and its area and its metropolitan area , Spain.
It is the second largest city in Spain in terms of population and activities, the eleventh most populous city of the European Union and the sixth including his banlieue : More than 5 million people live in the metropolitan barcelonaise.
 The majority of adjacent municipalities are also gathered in Àrea Metropolitana de Barcelona.
Located on the Mediterranean coast , it is crossed by the rivers Llobregat and Besòs and bordered to the west by the Serra de Collserola which rises to 512 meters ( top Tibidabo ) . It is considered as a global city because of its importance in the areas of finance , international trade , publishing , arts , entertainment and media. Barcelona is a major economic center which has , moreover, a major Mediterranean ports and the second behind the Spanish airport of Madrid- Barajas. It is also the city with the largest metropolitan park in the world , the Collserola Park, in front of Central Park in New York. Having been founded by the Romans , the city became the capital of the Counts of Barcelona and one of the major cities of the Crown of Aragon . Redesigned several times during its history, today it is a major tourist destination and has a unique cultural heritage. The Palau Güell ( 1984 ) , Casa Mila , Park Güell , the Palau de la Música Catalana and the Hospital de Sant Pau are also on the World Heritage List of UNESCO. In addition, the city is also known for hosting the Olympics in 1992 and , more recently, the headquarters of the Union for the Mediterranean .

Friday, September 6, 2013

Milan ( italy )

Milan: is an Italian city located in the north of the peninsula. Capital of the region of Lombardy, in the center of the Po Valley, Milan has approximately 1,275,000 inhabitants, making it the second largest city in Italy in terms of population, but represents, with its metropolitan area, the largest area urban country. With 7,123,563 inhabitants in 2009, the Milan metropolitan area is the fourth largest in Europe, after those of Moscow, Paris and London.
Milan is considered the economic heart of Italy and one of the nerve centers of the global mode. Industrial, commercial, financial and academic center, it is the seat of the Italian Stock Exchange and is a major attraction for the administrative offices of various corporations. Thus, Milan is an alpha world city. Milan also has a very important tourist attraction in Italy and Europe, with nearly two million tourists each 1year.

Rome ( italy )

Rome: is the capital of Italy since 1871. It is located in the Lazio region, in the center of the country. With 2,783,300 inhabitants established on 1285 sq km (4,103,250 inhabitants with the town in 2009) , Rome is the most populated municipality of Italy and the third largest expanse of Europe. after Moscow and London, and its urban area is however less important than those of Milan and Naples.
City cradle of Western civilization after Athens, Rome has a history that spans more than two thousand five hundred years. It was the center of the Roman Empire, which dominated Europe, North Africa and the Middle East for over five hundred years from the first century BC. BC to the fifth century AD. BC. Rome occupies a crucial place in Christianity and is the seat of the Roman Catholic Church and the Vatican City, a sovereign state whose head is the Pope.
The historic center of Renaissance and Baroque. Rome is the third most visited in Europe after London and Paris and its historic center is listed by UNESCO as a heritage site mondial5 tourist destination.

Salerno ( italy )

Salerno: is a city and comune in Campania (south- western Italy ) and is the capital of the province of the same name . It is located on the Gulf of Salerno on the Tyrrhenian Sea.
Salerno is the main town close to the Amalfi Coast (the " Amalfi Coast " on the Tyrrhenian Sea , which includes the famous towns of Amalfi, Positano, and others) and is mostly known for its Schola Medica Salernitana ( the first university of Medicine of the world.) in the 16th century, under the Sanseverino family, amongst the most powerful feudal lords in Southern Italy, the city became a great center of education , culture and the arts, and family hired several of the greatest intellectuals of the time . Later in 1694 , the city was hit by several earthquakes and catastrophic plagues , and after a period of Spanish rule , which will last until the 18th century . After that , Salerno became part of the Neapolitan Republic and saw a period of Napoleonic rule .
In recent history the city hosted the King of Italy , who moved to Rome in 1943 after Italy negotiated a peace with the Allies in World War II . A brief so-called " government of the South" was then established in the city , which became the "capital" of Italy for some months. Among Allied landings during Operation Avalanche (the invasion of Italy ) occurred near Salerno .
Today Salerno is an important cultural center in Campania and Italy and has had a long and eventful history . The city has a rich and varied culture , and the city is divided into three distinct regions : the medieval sector with a modern twist arts, the planned 19th century district and the area most densely populated after the war, with several of its properties.

Sardinia ( italy )

Sardinia: is an island in the Mediterranean Sea and one Italian region, north of Tunisia, south of Corsica. She received autonomous status February 28, 1948. Its capital is the city of Cagliari.
Sardinia is the surface of the second largest island in the Mediterranean Sea and an Italian region with special status whose official name is Regione Autonoma della Sardegna. Its Special Status enshrined in the 1948 Constitution guarantees the administrative autonomy of local tutelary institutions of its linguistic and geographical features.
Sardinia is separated from Corsica by the Strait of Bonifacio is located in the middle of the western Mediterranean Sea, this central position favored since ancient trade and cultural relations as the economic, military and strategic.
In modern times, many writers have extolled the beauty of Sardinia, which still retains, despite the expansion of coastal tourism in protected remnants of Culture nu
 ragique1 landscape.

calabria ( italy)

Calabria: in known as Bruttium or-formerly known as Italia antiquity, is a region in Southern Italy located at the "toe" of the Italian peninsula, is the capital of Calabria. Catanzaro.'s most populous city and the seat of the Regional Council of Calabria, however, is Reggio.
It is bordered to the north by the region of Basilicata, in the south-west by the region of Sicily, to the west by the Tyrrhenian Sea, and to the east by the Ionian Sea. The region covers 15,080 km 2 (5,822 square miles) and has a population of just over 2 million. The demonym of Calabria in English is Calabrian (Italian: Calabrese). In ancient times the name Calabria was used to refer to the southern part of Apulia, the Salento peninsula (also known as the "heel" of Italy).

capri ( italy)

 is an island in the Bay of Naples in front of the Sorrento Peninsula, Italy.

On its territory are the namesake town of Capri and the town of Anacapri. Its dimensions are 6 km long and three wide. Known since ancient times for its beauty, it is a resort since Roman times. It is particularly known for the Faraglioni, two rocks emerging from the sea The island has many other interests such as the Marina Piccola, the Belvedere of Tragara, the Blue Grotto (Grotta Azzurra), Villa San Michele, Villa Malaparte and the ruins of the imperial Roman villas.
The etymology of the name Capri back to the ancient Greek colonists who were the first inhabitants of the island. It is therefore not derived from Latin (capreae = goats), but ancient Greek κάπρος (kapros = boar).

Thursday, September 5, 2013

Oran ( algeria )

Oran: soprannominato "il radiante" è la seconda città più grande in una delle più grandi Algeria2 e il Maghreb. E 'una città portuale sul Mediterraneo, situata in Algeria nord-occidentale, a 432 km dalla capitale Algeri, e la capitale della prefettura omonima, lungo il Golfo di Orano.
La città è situata in fondo a un settentrionale aperto e Domineee direttamente dalla montagna ovest delle baie Aïdour, con una altezza di 420 metri, così come l'insieme di Moulay Abdelkader al-Jilani. La sinterizzazione va da entrambi i lati della gola del fiume Rhi ora coperto.
Nel 2008, il Comune abitanti1 erano 609,940, mentre la popolazione della città di Orano è stato di circa 1.000.000 abitanti3.

 Oran:  nicknamed "the radiant" is the second largest city in one of the largest Algeria2 and the Maghreb. It is a port city on the Mediterranean, situated in north-western Algeria, at 432 km from the capital Algiers, and the capital of the Prefecture of the same name, along the Gulf of Oran.
The city is located at the bottom of an open north and Domineee directly by the mountain west of the Aïdour bays, with a height of 420 meters, as well as the set of Moulay Abdelkader al-Jilani. The sintering runs from both sides of the gorge of the river Rhi now covered.
In 2008, the Common inhabitants1 were 609.940, while the population of the town of Oran was approximately 1,000,000 inhabitants3.

Constantine ( algeria )

Constantine: è una città nel nord-est dell'Algeria, capoluogo della provincia di Costantino con più di 840.000 abitanti. E 'la terza città più grande del paese in termini di popolazione.
Costantino, una delle più antiche città del mondo, è una città importante nella storia del Mediterraneo. Il suo nome dell'ex Cirta, capitale della Numidia, porta per 17 secoli il nome dell'imperatore Costantino I, che lo ricostruì nel 313. Costantino è anche conosciuta come la "città dei ponti sospesi", "città del vecchio rock", "Città di studiosi" come "città delle aquile" o "Città Malouf" versione Costantino della musica arabo-andalusa, è capoluogo della regione orientale.

 Constantine: is a town in north-eastern Algeria, capital of the province of Constantine with more than 840,000 inhabitants. And 'the third largest city in the country in terms of population.

Constantine, one of the oldest cities in the world, is an important city in the history of the Mediterranean. The name of the former Cirta, the capital of Numidia, door for 17 centuries the name of the emperor Constantine I, who rebuilt it in 313. Constantine is also known as the "city of suspension bridges", "city of the old rock", "City of scholars" as the "city of eagles" or "City Malouf" Constantine version of the Arab-Andalusian music, is the capital of the eastern region.

Wednesday, September 4, 2013

The Algerian desert

Il deserto algerino: si trova nel centro-nord Africa e parti dell'Africa sub-sahariana. Il deserto occupa più di quattro quinti di Algeria. L'espansione inizia dalla Atlante sahariano, più o meno come un deserto pietroso e più dentro a ottenere il massimo da dune di sabbia del deserto, diventa. Nel sud-ovest è la catena montuosa Tassili n'Ajjer trovato. Questa regione è una zona di grande interesse archeologico e fu posto nella "Lista del Patrimonio Mondiale" dall'UNESCO nel 1982. [1] La temperatura ufficiale più alto era 50,6 ° C (123,1 ° F) a In Salah.

The Algerian desert:  is located in north-central Africa and parts of sub-Saharan Africa. The desert occupies more than four-fifths of Algeria. Expansion starts from the Saharan Atlas, more or less like a stony desert and more inside you get the most from desert sand dunes, it becomes. In the southwest is the mountain range Tassili n'Ajjer found. This region is an area of ​​great archaeological interest and was placed on the "World Heritage List" by UNESCO in 1982. [1] The highest official temperature was 50.6 ° C (123.1 ° F) at In Salah.